Apple Maggot Flies (Rhagoletis) Have Recently Evolved an “Apple Race” that has Distinctive

Apple maggot flies (Rhagoletis) have recently evolved an “apple race” that has distinctive alleles related to the timing of apple fruiting. These new alleles have changed the breeding time in the apple race, such that it no longer occurs during the same months of the year as the breeding season of hawthorne maggot flies. These […]

Darwin’s Theory – Fundamental Observations of Populations and Means of Natural Selection

Darwin’s Theory – Fundamental Observations of Populations and Means of Natural Selection     Darwin’s theory has the following five fundamental observations, from which 3 inferences can be drawn. Darwin’s observations: 1) All species have capacity for fertility so that their population would grow exponentially ,if all people which might be born cross on to […]

Why Transcription and Translation are Coupled in Prokaryotes

Transcription means formation of mRNA from DNA and mRNA carries the information which is required for protein synthesis. Translation is the process of synthesis of protein from mRNA. The mRNA which is formed by transcription process is transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm for translation process. mRNA is transported to the ribosome which […]

How Bacteria can be Genetically Engineered to Produce a Human Protein?

HOW BACTERIA CAN BE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TO PRODUCE A HUMAN PROTEIN: OVERVIEW: Bacteria is genetically modified to produce useful human proteins such as human growth hormone and human insulin. Genetic engineering can be used to create organisms that produce large amounts of useful substances – for example, bacteria can be engineered to produce human insulin […]

What is a vector in biotechnology? How does a plasmid vector work?

WHAT IS A VECTOR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY? Biotechnology is divided into two words- biology and technology which means we use different techniques to improve our health and environment. How can we use these techniques??? Answer to this in biotechnology is genetically manipulating microorganisms and for genetically manipulation of microorganisms we need a vector. Thus, vector is […]


Define pollination. How does it differ from fertilisation? Pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma. Fertilisation is the fusion of the nuclei of two dissimilar male and female gametes. Pollination results in germination of pollen grains, formation of pollen tubes and entry of pollen tube inside the […]