In human beings, the gene for β-globin is located on chromosome 11, and the gene for α-globin, which is another component of the hemoglobin protein, is located on chromosome 16. Would these two chromosomes be expected to pair with each other during meiosis? Explain your answer.

Answer: These two chromosomes will not expected to pair with each other during meiosis. Explanation: Chromosomes 11 and 16 are different chromosomes that codes for different genes. Example gene for β-globin is located on chromosome 11 and gene for α-globin is located on chromosome 16. Therefore, they are called heterologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes has same […]

Arrange the following events in the correct temporal sequence during eukaryotic cell division, starting with the earliest

(a) condensation of the chromosomes, (b) movement of chromosomes to the poles, (c) duplication of the chromosomes, (d) formation of the nuclear membrane, (e) attachment of microtubules to the kinetochores, (f) migration of centrosomes to positions on opposite sides of the nucleus. Answer is: c, f, a, e, b, d

Match the stages of mitosis with the events they encompass

Stages: (1) anaphase, (2) metaphase, (3) prophase, (4) telophase. Events: (a) reformation of the nucleolus, (b) disappearance of the nuclear membrane, (c) condensation of the chromosomes, (d) formation of the mitotic spindle, (e) movement of chromosomes to the equatorial plane, (f) movement of chromosomes to the poles, (g) decondensation of the chromosomes, (h) splitting of […]

In what way do the microtubule organizing centers of plant and animal cells differ?

The microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) is a hollow cylinder structure from which microtubules become prominent. Both plant and animal cells have MTOC microtubule organizing centers. Animal cells have centrioles associated with microtubule organizing centers. This complex is called as centrosome. Plant cells do not have centrioles but have MTOC. Therefore, microtubule organizing centers will not associate […]

Which typically lasts longer, interphase or M phase? Can you explain why one of these phases lasts longer than the other?

Answer: Interphase Because synthesis of DNA and other materials must be synthesized for the cell division. Explanation: Cell cycle includes growth of cells, copying its genetic material (DNA), and then physically divide into two daughter cells. It is important to know the length of the cell cycle as it determines multiplication rate of an organism. […]

With a focus on the chromosomes, what are the key events during interphase and M phase in the eukaryotic cell cycle?

In eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle is divided into two stages. These are interphase and the mitotic (M) phase. M phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis. Cell cycle includes growth of cells, copying its genetic material (DNA), and then physically divide into two daughter cells. During interphase, growth of cell and then copying of its DNA […]

Compare the sizes and structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.

Size: Eukaryotic chromosomes are typically larger than prokaryotic chromosomes. Structure: Prokaryotic chromosomes are closed circular polymer and eukaryotic chromosomes are linear polymer. Prokaryotic chromosomes are circular, therefore migrate faster in gel as compared to linear chromosomes of eukaryotes. This is because they prokaryotes chromosomes has smaller profile. Composition: Prokaryotic chromosomes have a simple composition as […]

Distinguish between haploid and diploid states. What types of cell are haploid? What types of cells are diploid?

Ploidy states means number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of cell. Haploid states has one set of chromosome and diploid states has two sets of chromosomes. Gametes, egg and sperm contains single set of chromosomes. These are called haploid cells. Somatic cells contains two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. These are […]

What are the principal differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Cell organelles in eukaryotic cells are membrane-bound and prokaryotic cells do not contain membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells contains cell membrane and in prokaryotic cells cell wall is also present. The main difference between cell membrane and cell wall is that cell membrane is present in all cells but cell wall is present in only plants, […]

All cells are surrounded by a membrane; some cells are surrounded by a wall. What are the differences between cell membranes and cell walls?

All cells are surrounded by a membrane but many cells have a cell wall also. Cell membranes and cell walls both are cellular boundaries that separate the cells from the environment. It also provides shape and support the cell. The main difference between cell membrane and cell wall is that cell membrane is present in […]