Compare the sizes and structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.

Size: Eukaryotic chromosomes are typically larger than prokaryotic chromosomes. Structure: Prokaryotic chromosomes are closed circular polymer and eukaryotic chromosomes are linear polymer. Composition: Prokaryotic chromosomes have a simple composition as compare to eukaryotic chromosome. Example: prokaryotic chromosome contains DNA, RNA, and some protein but eukaryotic chromosome are complex as it contains DNA, RNA, and many […]

Distinguish between haploid and diploid states. What types of cell are haploid? What types of cells are diploid?

Ploidy states means number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of cell. Haploid states has one set of chromosome and diploid states has two sets of chromosomes. Gametes, egg and sperm contains single set of chromosomes. These are called haploid cells. Somatic cells contains two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. These are […]

What are the principal differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Cell organelles in eukaryotic cells are membrane-bound and prokaryotic cells do not contain membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells contains cell membrane and in prokaryotic cells cell wall is also present. The main difference between cell membrane and cell wall is that cell membrane is present in all cells but cell wall is present in only plants, […]

All cells are surrounded by a membrane; some cells are surrounded by a wall. What are the differences between cell membranes and cell walls?

All cells are surrounded by a membrane but many cells have a cell wall also. Cell membranes and cell walls both are cellular boundaries that separate the cells from the environment. It also provides shape and support the cell. The main difference between cell membrane and cell wall is that cell membrane is present in […]

Carbohydrates and proteins are linear polymers. What types of molecules combine to form these polymers?

Answer: Monosaccharides or sugars combine to form carbohydrates. Amino acids combine to form proteins. Explanation: Carbohydrates, proteins, proteins and nucleic acids are four main macromolecules of life. Carbohydrates are a polymers that are made up of monomers which is called as monosaccharides. Monosaccharide are simple sugars that are combined together to make a disaccharide or […]

Hemophilia is an inherited disorder in which the blood clotting mechanism is defective. Because of this defect, people with hemophilia may die from cuts or bruises, especially if internal organs such as the liver, lungs, or kidneys have been damaged. One method of treatment involves injecting a blood-clotting factor that has been purified from blood donations. This factor is a protein encoded by a human gene. Suggest a way in which modern genetic technology could be used to produce this factor on an industrial scale. Is there a way in which the inborn error of hemophilia could be corrected by human gene therapy?

Biotechnology is divided into two words- biology and technology which means we use different techniques to improve our health and environment. How can we use these techniques??? Answer to this in biotechnology is genetically manipulating microorganisms and for genetically manipulation of microorganisms we need a vector. Thus, vector is a DNA molecule which is used […]

Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a mutation in one of the codons in the gene for β-globin; because of this mutation the sixth amino acid in the β-globin polypeptide is a valine instead of a glutamic acid. A less severe type of anemia is caused by a mutation that changes this same codon to one specifying lysine as the sixth amino acid in the β-globin polypeptide. What word is used to describe the two mutant forms of this gene? Do you think that an individual carrying these two mutant forms of the beta-globin gene would suffer from anemia? Explain.

Two mutant forms of the gene is called as allele. Alleles are present at the same place on a chromosome and controls the same trait such as hair color. Different forms of a gene such as normal and mutant form or both mutant forms or both normal form are known as alleles. The individual carrying […]

The gene for a-globin is present in all vertebrate species. Over millions of years, the DNA sequence of this gene has changed in the lineage of each species. Consequently, the amino acid sequence of a-globin has also changed in these lineages. Among the 141 amino acid positions in this polypeptide, human a-gobin differs from shark a-globin in 79 positions; it differs from carp a-globin in 68 and from cow a-globin in 17. Do these data suggest an evolutionary phylogeny for these vertebrate species?

Answer: Yes, these data suggest an evolutionary phylogeny for these vertebrate species. Explanation: Gene is similar to meaningful word and DNA is similar to sentence. The meaning of a word is same as protein. Building blocks of proteins are the amino acids. Formation of proteins depends on the instructions in the gene. It gives information […]

RNA is synthesized using DNA as a template. Is DNA ever synthesized using RNA as a template? Explain.

Answer: Yes, DNA ever synthesized using RNA as a template by reverse transcription process. Explanation: RNA is synthesized using DNA as a template is called transcription. Transcription means formation of mRNA from DNA and mRNA carries the information which is required for protein synthesis. Reverse transcription is the process in which DNA is synthesized from […]