Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a disease that contains abnormal hemoglobin which means sickle hemoglobin. It affects red blood cells (RBC) as it causes the cells in a sickle shape. Red blood cells are also called as erythrocytes that carry oxygen from lungs to rest of the body. Hemoglobin is the protein made by red blood […]

Preservation Of Food

To preserve food means is to slow down the activity of enzymes and microbes that spoil the food. They cannot survive in acidic conditions, in high temperature or in high salt or sugar concentrations. Different techniques are used in different food items. To preserve tomatoes, first make puree of tomatoes and put it in freezer. […]

Coronavirus Precautions

1. Washing hands frequently Coronaviruses contain genetic information (single stranded RNA) inside fat-based covering known as a viral envelope. When they interact with soap, this coating of fat will be destroyed by the soap molecules. Thus, virus can no longer infect the host organism. 2. Stay at home Stay at home# Best advice that can […]

Five forces of evolution

Evolution means changes in gene or allele frequencies within a population over generations and these changes lead to different genetic makeup of species. Five forces of evolution includes: 1. Natural Selection 2. Genetic Drift 3. Mutations 4. Gene Flow. 5. Non-Random Mating 1. Evolution which is due to natural selection depends on fitness of individuals […]

Micrococcal Nuclease ( MNase)

Micrococcal Nuclease ( MNase) is an endonuclease and exonuclease. It cleaves RNA or DNA sequences randomly. Endonuclease cleaves phosphodiester bonds within polynucleotide chain and exonuclease cleaves the phosphodiester bonds at the ends of polynucleotide chain. Micrococcal nuclease has exonuclease and endonuclease activity both. It cleaves 5′-phosphodiester bonds against RNA and DNA mainly at AT or […]

Mutation in rho utilization site (rut)

Overview: Two types of termination strategies found in prokaryotes are: Rho-dependent and Rho-independent termination. Both these transcription termination require step-loop structure to terminate or pause the RNA polymerase. Rho-independent termination requires specific sequences (and not rho protein) in the DNA template strand. Rho-dependent termination depends on Rho factor. Mutation in rho utilization site (rut): In […]