What is chloroplast
What is chloroplast? Chloroplast in photosynthesis is a highly important organelle in plant cells that catalyze photosynthetic reactions in plants. Plants use chloroplasts (contains chlorophyll) for the process of Photosynthesis (the process used by plants to convert light energy from sunlight into starch or sugar, and carbon dioxide is released as a waste material) in order to produce food.
In order for plants to produce chloroplast, the compound chlorophyll is required. It can be called chlorophyll light because it absorbs solar energy in the form of photons. Chlorophyll is located within the plant chloroplasts. Specifically, it is located in thylakoid membrane.
Photosynthesis in plants uses light energy from the sun to create food and oxygen for living things like the green plants. When sunlight falls on the chloroplasts, the light is absorbed and converted into energy.
Where are chloroplasts found
What is chloroplast and where are they found? Chloroplasts are found in plant cell and not in animal cells as it is involved in photosynthesis process. Photosynthesis does not occur in animal cell, thus no need of chloroplasts in animal cells. Chlorophyll is located within the plant chloroplasts and it is the green pigment that harvests light for photosynthesis.
Parts of chloroplast
1. Membrane Envelope
Chloroplast is double-membrane organelle. It has outer membrane and inner membrane. Space between inner and outer membrane is called as Intermembrane Space
2. Thylakoid System
It is the part of chloroplast where pigment called chlorophyll is present. Light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur here.
It is a colourless aqueous fluid present within the inner membrane of the chloroplast. Stroma function is to synthesize organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide. The chloroplast’s stroma is an important part of Photosynthesis and is therefore very important to the Photosynthetic membrane. The stroma is like a “tunnel” through which light can pass. The stroma is lined with specialized receptors and contains the photosynthetic enzyme.
It helps in photosynthesis light reactions which means convert light into chemical energy of ATP and NADPH.
Labelled diagram of chloroplast
Functions of chloroplast
Functions of Chloroplast in photosynthesis are as follows:
1. Photosynthesis process
The main function of the chloroplasts is to absorb the sunlight for process of photosynthesis. When there is enough sunlight, the plants can absorb enough oxygen which is important for their growth and development.
2. Reproduction of more chloroplast
The function of the chloroplasts is to absorb light, to emit energy and to store food for the reproduction of more chloroplasts. When a Photosynthetic membrane is damaged, it leads to a malfunction in the photosynthetic reaction. This is why green plants, trees, roots and algae all appear to be dying.
3. Remove excess oxygen
Chloroplast molecules have a role to remove excess oxygen from the photosynthesis process. It does this by taking up the electron and replacing it with an oxygen. This process also allows for the transfer of an carbon dioxide into the chloroplasts. The end products of this process are the sugars which are the raw materials for the plants to produce food for themselves. A lot of work has went in to discover how the chloroplast molecules work and why they need to be in a particular orientation so as to do their work in photosynthesis.
Hope you like the article- what is chloroplast. Now share your knowledge by comment in comment box why chloroplast niot found in animal cellls?