PLANT CLONING and DNA CLONING
PLANT CLONING :
Plant Cloning in Biology is often misunderstood by people as a way to clone a plant and grow that plant under your control. However, this is not so. Plant cloning is a technique used to clone a plant, usually an animal or a small worm, and then experiment with that clone to see if it will grow and reproduce
The best manner to clone a plant is taking a cuttings. A branch from the parent plant is cut off, its lower leaves are eliminated, and the stem is planted in damp compost. Plant hormones are regularly used for new roots to expand. After some weeks, new roots grow and a new plant is produced. The method is mostly used by gardeners.
2) Tissue culture :
Another manner of cloning plants is by means of tissue culture. Sterile agar jelly with plant hormones and masses of nutrients is required. Tissue culture is more expensive and tough to do than taking cuttings.
In short, plant cloning is the process of getting a plant to grow a part of its own without any kind of aid from another plant or animal. The DNA of the plant is taken and injected into a cloned plant that already contains the desired part. The plant will develop and reproduce very similar to its natural counterpart. Some worry about this technique not being able to be perfected, however.
If the plant is successful, the clone will grow and reproduce just like its natural counterpart. If it’s not successful, then the plant simply will not grow or reproduce. This can be risky because it is unknown if the animal or the plant which is being cloned is safe to breed. Some animals that have been cloned and tried to grow again have caused problems for farmers and scientists.
Effect on farmers
Scientists are also looking at the issue of the effects on farmers. When a plant is cloned, it takes away the source of the plant’s food. If the plant cloning process is not controlled correctly, it could pose a risk to farmers who rely on the plants for their own survival. The only way to make sure that plant and animal cloning will not pose such a risk is by creating the plants or animals that are truly one-of-a-kind. If a farmer discovers that he is receiving lower quality crops because his plant has been cloned, he should be able to work out an arrangement with the researchers to continue harvesting the plant in its natural form. This will help farmers both now and in the future.
DNA CLONING :
DNA cloning is a molecular biology method that makes many equal copies of a bit of DNA, consisting of a gene.
In a cloning experiment, a targeted gene is inserted into a circular piece of DNA called a plasmid.
The plasmid is introduced into micro organism via manner known as transformation, and micro organism sporting the plasmid are selected on using antibiotics.
Bacteria with the precise plasmid are used to make plasmid DNA or, in some instances, caused to express the gene and make protein.
DNA Cloning Methods Explained
DNA cloning is the catalyst for many of the other genetic engineering methods to stem-cell research. The nucleus from one cell of a donor organism is extracted with restriction enzymes and treated with specific pairs of primers. After being treated with restriction enzymes, the nucleus is isolated from its partner cells. The extracted nucleus is then inserted into a mammalian host cell through electroporation. The resultant product is then inserted into living organisms in a process called transfection.
Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and transcription mediated amplification systems (TMA)
Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and transcription mediated amplification systems (TMA) are the other genetic engineering methods used in DNA cloning. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involves expression of a genetic construct in a living cell. The DNA template is selected and PCR amplifies it. The resulting product is then purified and treated with further restriction enzymes. The product is then harvested and subjected to multiple rounds of purification to remove any residual non-functional DNA components.
TMA also involves expression of a genetic construct in a living cell, but in this case, a taster is used instead of restriction enzymes to introduce mutations at specific locations within the sequence. Again, the product is purified and treated with further restriction enzymes to generate a product that is then injected into an organism. This procedure is performed with the help of a retrovirus. In DNA cloning, there are two types of restriction enzymes that are used. Specific inhibitors are used to stop certain activities while others act as controllers to ensure that the procedure is regulated.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a DNA cloning technique that employs PCR amplifiers to insert DNA strands into cells and ensure their survival during storage. The DNA contained within the PCR amplifies and expands the strands that are inserted into the cells. The resulting DNA product is then extracted by extraction apparatus from living organisms. For instance, DNA samples from living cells like bacteria, fungi, and even humans are used in the PCR process.
Restriction enzymes are found naturally in bacteria and are responsible for ensuring that an organism remains alive and reproduces. Due to their base structure, restriction enzymes cannot survive in most living systems (e.g., oxygen). Therefore, they are used in conjunction with other elements, such as vitamins and lipids, to keep the genetic material (the plasmids) in a state that will allow them to reproduce properly. In the case of DNA cloning, restriction enzymes are introduced into the cells to ensure that the desired DNA sequence is copied correctly and maintained throughout the cloning process.
Recombinant DNA refers to DNA that has been repaired via homologous copying or transformation. There are many methods that can be used to repair DNA. The DNA may be heated in the presence of oxygen to form short strands of dna, referred to as vectors. Once the desired DNA is copied onto the vectors, the host cells dna can be transformed into the elongated form that is necessary for generating the desired trait in organisms.
The transformed cells are then inserted into the host organism in the form of chromosomes and proteins. The inserted DNA is passed on to the rest of the organisms through the various types of transduction methods. For instance, some transduction methods involve allowing the DNA to be detached from the transformed cells by heat; others involve direct transfer of the DNA between DNA probes and the target organism’s chromosomes. Transcription involves making copies of the genes from a host cell and introducing them into the target organism. The DNA then copies itself into the target cell where it is passed on to be inserted into the organism’s genome. Lastly, transcription involves directing the genes that contain the desired traits in an organism back to their respective host organism.
The procedure of using a dna vector to obtain multiple copies of a target gene is known as DNA cloning. In fact, there are various different forms of DNA cloning that use different DNA cloning methods. For instance, there is homologous cloning, which allows you to get multiple copies of a target gene by mating a natural human gene with a synthetic dna sequence. Another form of DNA cloning involves inserting the target sequence into your own genetic material so that you can create a new life form using DNA from your own body. This is how scientists create mosquitoes and frogs that are completely dependent on a specific DNA for their existence. However, all the forms of DNA cloning that are described above are only possible due to modern advances in technology and the continued research and study of DNA.