Definition, Structure and Function Of A Gene
The term ‘gene’ comes from the greek word ‘gonos’ which means offspring.
A gene is a tiny section of a long DNA molecule, which are coded with instructions that allow a cell to produce a specific product, usually a protein.
The DNA molecule contains thousands of genes that are located inside the chromosomes and chromosomes, in turn, are found inside the nucleus of cells.
Structure of gene:
Genes structure consists of introns, exons, promotes, enhancer and silencers.
Introns are defined as non coding sequences and exons are defined as coding sequences. Promotes are sequences that are involved in transcription and allow transcriptional factors in their functions.
The enhancers and silencers are involved in gene expression. Enhances helps in transcription and silencer represses transcription.
Function of gene:
Genes are made up of DNA and particular DNA sequence involved in particular function of the gene.
A gene is transcribed (copied) from DNA into RNA which is called as transcription. It is then translated into protein which is called as translation. Therefore, main function of gene is production of protein.
Genes are called as functional units of hereditary as it contains information that are required for the living organisms to survive and reproduce.