Before coming to functions of a cell nucleus, I want to explain one of the most important things that a cell can contain is the DNA code. The DNA or the genetic material holds the information that tells the cell how to make proteins and develop into different types of cells. The DNA is also a part of the cell that determines the structure, size and how the cell grows. As humans, we all have a small part of our DNA code in the form of a chromosome and this is what scientists call the cellular blueprint. Cell nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown in 1831.
Definition of cell nucleus
Nucleus is the “Brain” that controls and manage all the functions of the cell. It protects or stores the genetic information such as DNA that contains instructions for the production of proteins. It is surrounded by the nuclear envelope. It is the control center of the cell.
DNA is located in the cell nucleus
DNA is also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, it is a hereditary substance in humans and every kind of organisms. Almost all the cells in the body of a person contain similar DNA. DNA is found in the cell nucleus and also in mitochondria and chloroplast. Chloroplast is present only in plants. The data in DNA is maintained as a code created by four chemical bases such as thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine. Human DNA comprises of around 3 billion bases, where more than 99 percent of those bases are similar in all individuals. The succession of these bases decides the data accessible for building and keeping up an organism.
Cell nucleus is made up of
CELL NUCLEUS are made up of the following: nucleoplasm (nucleus), gametes (non-sex chromosomes), proline and sialic acid, transcription factors, and accessory genes.
Nuclei are made up of highly complex genetic codes. Some of these codes are non-functional and are termed as ‘autosomal’ in nature. Non-functional genes are usually clustered together and are mostly found in the cytoplasm of most cells. Nucleoplasmic proteins (NPPs) are polysaccharides that lying coiled on the chromosomes.
Nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm and nuclear pore
Nucleus is separated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope. Nuclear envelope is also known as nuclear membrane and it holds nucleolus, nucleoplasm and DNA. The liquid material in the nucleus is called as nucleoplasm. Nucleoplasm is a type of protoplasm in which DNA and nucleolus are suspended. Nuclear pore is known as small holes in the nucleus that allows entry or exit of molecules.
Cell nucleus functions
1. Cell nucleus- essential for life
One of the most important things that the answer to the question “why are cell nucleus important to the cell” can tell us is that it is essential to our life. Without a proper cell, we cannot live. The cell gives us energy, keeps us alive and makes sure that our tissues are functioning well. It is often said that without cell biology, we are nothing but animals.
2. Determines the physical attributes of an individual cell
The cell nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA) that determines the physical attributes of an individual cell. It encodes the entire genetic code of all cells as well as the regulatory machinery that control their activity. DNA is the genetic material that determines genetic differences between organisms.
3. Responsible for Transcription process
Transcription process occurs in nucleus as DNA resides in nucleus and copying of information from DNA to mRNA is called as transcription process.. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) and then translated into either non-coding RNA or into a protein, which is then carried out by the ribosome. The information from DNA into mRNA is called as transcription. then mRNA to protein is known as translation.
4. Responsible for DNA replication
The DNA found within the nucleus must be replicated to ensure that each new cell receives an appropriate number of chromosomes.
5. Responsible for genetic variations
Cell nucleus contains chromosome, information on the positioning of the chromosome, regulate the genetic regulation, determine the structural development of the chromosomes, and provide regulatory messages to other elements of the genome. In simple terms, it is responsible for all the genetic variations in living organisms.
6. Synthesize enzymes
Enzymes break down matter to produce energy. They are an important part of metabolism which determines the rate at which our bodies use up energy. Most enzymes are proteins, although a couple of are catalytic RNA molecules.
Cell membrane and nuclear membrane
The cell membrane is responsible for carrying information from the cell through the cell. Along with the cell membrane is the nuclear envelope, which protects the cell and carries away its waste products.
The cell membranes and the nuclear envelopes are composed of various types of proteins. One of the most important functions of these proteins is to regulate the assembly and disassembly of the cell’s components, which is also involved in the regulation of the cell’s temperature. The protein that forms the cell membranes is called G-CSF; this protein is also involved in the regulation of the cell’s temperature.