Heredity definition in biology means passing of the traits from parents to offspring or from one generation to the other. The passing of the genetic factor can be either through asexual reproduction or through sexual reproduction. The offspring of all organism be it humans, animals, or plants resemble with their parents in several aspects. This happens only due to the phenomenon of heredity. Heredity in literal term means “tendency of like begets like”, which means all organism produces alike themselves so that the individuals of the same parents resemble each other in many aspects. It also involves the transfer of genetic characters from parents to offspring via egg or sperm. The study of heredity in biology is genetics. The subject of genetics and heredity are inseparable.
Type of genetic inheritance:
Single gene inheritance
In humans, the DNA of both the organisms is required to create an offspring. To reproduce sexually, an organism such as diploids, with two alleles of each gene must produce haploid cells through the process of meiosis. Meiosis consists of two consecutive cellular divisions in which the number of alleles is reduced to one gene. The haploid cells develop into gametes and the gametes of opposite sex are required so that the fertilization process takes place. Thus, it is clear that parents pass on their traits to their offspring in the multiple-allele system and the interaction of these alleles produces different phenotypes of heredity definition in biology.
Traits and characteristics of parents such as eye color, skin tone, height, etc., are passed on to the offspring. Each human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes except sex cells. But when they combine (Sex cell and egg), they form a total of 46. Chromosomes are strands of DNA in the nuclei of cells that carry genetic information, genes. In addition, genetic defects including Down syndrome and Phenylketonuria (PKU) are also inherited. Such genetic problems can be detected before birth with the help of a PKU test and regulated by dietary methods.