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Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata PDF

What is stomata?

The stomata are tiny pores in the epidermis of leaves and stems of plants. They regulate the amount of water and carbon dioxide absorbed for photosynthesis and the amount of water lost through transpiration. The size and location of stomata depends on the guard cells’ turgor changes. Now, let’s discuss about opening and closing of stomata.

Functions of stomata

These pores in the leaf surface allows gases to exchange. Plants use this pore to absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, and then release oxygen. Besides that, they help regulate the amount of water and moisture in their tissues. The stomata also regulate the growth of their roots. Despite this complexity, stomata are essential for the life of plants and are essential for the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration. The stomata of a flower or a plant are responsible for the photosynthesis in plants.

The stomata of a plant’s leaves are found underneath the leaf’s surface. This allows them to release gas at a slower rate, which helps the plant retain moisture. As a result, the stomata help the plant breathe and photosynthesize. These processes are vital for the survival of any plant, and are essential for the growth of its species. Hence, plants should have a healthy population of stomata in their leaves.

The stomata of a plant are small openings in the leaf. They are important for the exchange of gas between the plant and its environment. They are surrounded by guard cells. These tiny holes help the plant to absorb carbon dioxide and absorb water, which are essential for the production of food.

The stomata are a crucial feature of plants. They help the plant absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. The stomata in a leaf are responsible for the exchange of gases in the plant’s environment. They are found in all species of plants, including some plants that are suited for growing in the desert. If they are not, they should be in the shade. To prevent the plant from drying out, the stomata of a leaf should be open when the leaves are fully open.

Guard cells of stomata

The guard cells of stomata are a key component of plant water and gas regulation. Light is the main trigger for opening of stomata. They are composed of two sides, one thick and the other thin. As water enters the cell, the thick side bulges outward, while the thin side draws the cell inward, forming a pore. The guard cells surround the stomata’s openings. To close a stoma, solutes must leave the stoma, which triggers chemical reactions. As water and ions leave the guard cells, they “deflate,” or close, like two balloons.

The guard cells of stomata help regulate the movement of water and solutes. They surround each stoma and concerned with opening and closing of stomata. The guard cells of stomata are responsible for controlling the opening and closing of stomata.

Now, you can answer this question- Which is concerned with opening and closing of stomata?
opening and closing of stomata

Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata

Chloroplast in photosynthesis is a highly important organelle in plant cells that catalyze photosynthetic reactions in plants. When sunlight falls on the chloroplasts, the light is absorbed and converted into energy called as ATP.

ATP provides energy for transport of K+ (potassium ion) into the guard cells from the surrounding epidermal cells. This creates an electrochemical gradient inside the cell. It allows the K+ to enter into the cells through a channel protein. Potassium ion exchange hypothesis of opening and closing of stomata was proposed by Levitt (1974).

When water flows out of the guard cell then stomata closes as there is less turgor pressure. And when water flows into the guard cells then it results in opening of stomata because of more turgor pressure. Turgor pressure makes plant rigid. Turgid guard cells results in opening of stomata. Less turgor pressure makes flaccid guard cells and causes closing of stomata

Factors affecting opening and closing of stomata


– CO2 concentration

– Humidity

– Wind


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