What is Mitochondria
What is mitochondria and why Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell? Mitochondria is a double membrane structure that can reproduce on its own.
Why Mitochondria Is The Powerhouse Of The Cell
Mitochondria Is The Powerhouse Of The Cell because it converts chemical energy of food into energy (ATP) through a process called as cellular respiration. Thus, mitochondria generates ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) which is used as the chemical energy of the cell. ATP is called as energy currency of cell and energy is released by hydrolysis of the third phosphate group. When this third phosphate is released then ADP (adenosine diphosphate) results. ADP after absorbing energy, regenerate ATP molecule. Glucose is the main source of ATP in the respiration of cell.
Why Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell? Because the cells to function more readily and effectively when the energy level in the cells is high. This means, more specifically, that energy metabolism is high, which is critical for cell to cell activity.
What is energy metabolism
It is the process whereby the energy that enters a cell is transformed into the necessary energy required for a specific task. ATP is the source of the chemical energy needed for aerobic respiration in aerobic cells (oxygen-requiring cells). There are three main types of energy metabolism: aerobic, anaerobic, and glycolytic. When these systems are functioning well, the cell itself is referred to as an oxidizing cell.
During aerobic respiration, the energy produced is exhausted very quickly. The only way to store energy for future use is via anaerobic respiration, which is the process in which the oxygen is oxidized and then reused as energy for a later point in the metabolic process.
Functions of Mitochondria
1. Produce Energy
Main function of Mitochondria is to produce energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) , which is used as the chemical energy of the cell.
2. Necessity for oxygen
So, the answer to the question of why is MITOCHONDRIA required? It is because of the necessity for oxygen to perform the necessary reaction.
3. Formation of new cells
The formation of new cells and the maintenance of old ones are an incredibly complicated process that requires a great deal of ATP, if the cells are to get growing and healthy again. This is the reason that people can get hurt so easily. The damage they can cause to the muscle tissue, and other parts of the body, are great and can cause permanent disability for the person involved.
4. Growth and development of cell
Mitochondria play a vital role in a cell’s development and growth. They provide both the energy needed by the cell and the building blocks of the cellular DNA. Mitochondria are found throughout all the cells in the human body and most other living things.
5. Cell Regulation
The important task of mitochondria is the regulation of cell generation and growth. Mitochondria, which are present in all living things, provide the energy needed by the cell to perform its cellular functions. During a cell generation process, the mother cell divides into daughter cells. In the case of most animals, this process happens very rapidly, usually in a few hours or minutes. However, a unique feature of the human species is that the creation of a new cell occurs very slowly, taking up to fifteen years. Thus, while mitochondria is called a powerhouse of the cell, it is a very slow producer.
How does mitochondria produce ATP
To understand why are MITOCHONDRIA called the powerhouse of the body, we must know how it all works. Anaerobic (oxygen-requiring) cells do not require energy, because there is no oxygen involved. As an aerobic (oxygen-friendly) cell, it must somehow generate energy, and that requires something called ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the building block of the life-giving energy in ATP (adenosine trioxide). When this process is hampered, or “starved”, the cell can no longer perform the energy it needs to perform many functions in the body.
When there is no energy generated, or ATP exhausted, the cell cannot perform the number of functions it needs to perform, and that’s when the cells start to die. This process continues until the cell is repaired or replaced by another type of cell. This is what causes death when the problem in the energy metabolism is not addressed quickly enough.
This is also why some cells can live for decades, while others are only a few years old. The reason for this is that the energy they need to perform their job is stored in a reserve. It is called a reserve because the cells will continue to replenish it even when it becomes depleted. This is important to consider because many of our daily activities require the use of ATP (at a cellular level) and therefore, the need for this energy constantly replenished. Without it, these activities cannot continue.
It is also the reason why the body cannot perform long-term maintenance on itself. If, for example, someone were to perform a serious injury to the body, such as a broken hip, the person may be able to heal in a week, but a person with an ATP deficiency will have trouble healing. The injured person will be weaker and more limber for a period of time, but their muscles will not be able to grow. The injured person will need to either slow down the healing process, or increase the production of ATP.
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