crossorigin="anonymous">Polymerase Chain Reaction- Definition, Steps & Uses - Questions House

Polymerase Chain Reaction- Definition, Steps & Uses

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction machine is laboratory apparatus which is used to amplify DNA segments through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This machine maintains needed temperature and make millions of copies DNA segments by PCR.

Tubes containing reaction mixtures put into a thermal block in PCR machine. This machine then increases and decreases the blocks temperature in different steps.

What is Polymerase chain reaction

Now, what is PCR (polymerase chain reaction). It is a procedure that is used in the lab to amplify particular section of DNA from small amount of DNA.

It was developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis and he got Nobel Prize for his pioneering work.

It is used in medical or biological or forensic research labs. It is used to process DNA for sequencing, to detect the presence or absence of a gene, to identify pathogens

Polymerase Chain Reaction ingredients

DNA template that is to be copied, primers, DNA to initiate PCR. DNA nucleotide bases used to construct the new strand of DNA. Taq polymerase enzyme is required to add in the newly synthesized DNA bases.

Buffer to maintain right conditions for the reaction.

PCR process involves heating or cooling process called as thermal cycling and it occurs in PCR machine.

Polymerase Chain Reaction steps

1. Denaturing

Here, double-stranded template DNA is heated so that two separated into two single strands.

2. Annealing

In this step, temperature is lowered so that DNA primers attach to template DNA.

3. Extending

Temperature is now raised so that new strand of DNA is formed by enzyme Taq polymerase.

These steps repeated 20-40 times to double the number of copies of DNA each time.

Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction Applications

1. DNA amplification

polymerase chain reaction is most useful in DNA amplification. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a versatile and economical molecular instrument to copy or transform small portions of DNA orRNA. PCR combines those of genetic evolution with those of bacterial artificial expression that are performed repeatedly via multiple cycles.

The term polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used in the field of molecular biology and medical research to describe a variety of different techniques used to provide biological activity with the help of genetic material that has been polymerized.

2. Polymerase chain reaction in medicine

Polymerase chain reactions occur frequently in medical settings. For example, whenever a person is immunodeficiency virus (IDV) screened for infections, the physician uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR’s) to create sequences of DNA. These sequences are then used to screen and identify individuals who may be at risk of contracting certain infections. The process is highly efficient, yet many scientists remain uncertain about the exact reactions and the consequences of even the most minute of changes. Scientists are particularly concerned about the use of high temperature cycles and denaturation processes on DNA that will allow a virus to escape from the host’s body.

3. Produce DNA template

Another laboratory method for producing polymerase chain reactions is to use a DNA template. A DNA template is simply an outline of the DNA double helix that is designed to replicate itself. The DNA template is then combined with a DNA sample that has been extracted through electrophoresis or through manual digestion. Then, upon separation of the target sequence from the DNA sample, the denatured DNA can undergo the polymerase reaction.

4. Faster process

All types of polymerase chain reaction processes have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the main advantages of these methods is the speed at which the process occurs. This is faster than some more complicated methods such as viral polymerase amplification where a number of different viruses are needed to activate the genetic material. Furthermore, it is also simpler to perform and more efficient in comparison with some more complicated methods.

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