Reproduction In Flowering Plants
Reproduction in flowering plants reproduce differently from other plants that don’t reproduce sexually. Flowering plants are categorized as being either asexual or sexual stage. Both sex and sex reproduction are important in the growth and development of plants. Asexual reproduction is when a plant reproduces by budding. This occurs in plants that have already flowered.
Reproduction in flowering plants is through Flowers. Flowers changes into fruits. Fruits have seeds and seeds grow into new plants. Therefore, plants reproduce from seeds present in the fruits but some plants such as ferns and mosses grow from spores as they do not have fruits and flowers.
Parts Of Flower And Its Functions:
1. Sepals: Sepals gives protection to the plants at the bud stage. It is like a leaf present at the flower base.
2. Petals: Petals are used in pollination as it attract insects. They are of sweet smell and brightly coloured for attracting insects.
3. Stamens: They are the male reproductive part of flower. It consists of anthers and filaments. When insects collect nectar from flowers then pollen sticks to their body and this is how insects help in pollination.
Pollination is defined as the the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma.
4. Carpel: It is female reproductive part of the flower and is also known as pistil. It consists of stigma, style and ovary. Ovules are present in the ovary. After pollination, pollen tube will grow from pollen grains and reaches the ovary through style.
Fertilization is defined as the fusion of pollen grains with ovules.
How Does Reproduction In Flowering Plants Take Place?
Germination occurs at the division of an individual cell. The division of cells occurs because of some signal such as light, temperature, chemical, or physical. Flowering plants take about four weeks to form a sporulation, or new plant grows from the original one. Asexual reproduction takes place after the development of new vegetative cells has stopped and the development of a reproductive organ such as the ovary or sperm.
Flowering plants carry life-giving parts called pollen and seeds. Seeds are responsible for producing new plants by allowing the reproduction process to continue. Separate parts of a flower have different functions. Flowering plants have a variety of petals that serve as their sexual organs. Flowering plants have two types of petals: stamens and pistils. The stamens, which can be wingless, are used to attract insects. The pistils, on the other hand, contain the reproductive organs.
What is aestivation in plants
It is the positioning of individual parts of a plant in a flower so that they open up. Most plants use some sort of mechanism to do this, and in nature, the mechanism involved is gravity. Plants lift water-soaked leaves, pull petals together, etc.
Different types of aestivation are present on each plant. The type of aestivation that is most common on roses (whether long-lasting or short-lived) is known as sepalization. Sepalization typically occurs when the flowers open in the middle of the plant, rather than at the base. This type of aestivation is commonly found in species with droopy floral stems such as the lilac. In this case, the sepals are located at the top of the stem.
It is transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of another flower of same plant or another plant of same kind. There are two ways in which a flower can self-pollinate, one is when the flower grows on its own pollen and the second is when the pollen is released by the flower.
It is transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of same flower or another flower of same kind. Read also: Difference between cross pollination and self pollination
An important class of flowering plants are the asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction occurs when a plant reproduces sexually without the help of any sexual reproduction system. Asexual reproduction does not occur with all flowering plants. Some plants, for example, have a structure, called an ovule, that contains an embryo and develops into a flower before maturity. In such plants reproduction is through sexual reproduction.
Two ways of Asexual reproduction in plants:
Natural methods are through budding, vegetative propagation, spore formation and fragmentation.
The best manner to clone a plant is taking a cuttings. A branch from the parent plant is cut off, its lower leaves are eliminated, and the stem is planted in damp compost. Plant hormones are regularly used for new roots to expand. After some weeks, new roots grow and a new plant is produced. The method is mostly used by gardeners.
Another manner of cloning plants is by means of tissue culture. Sterile agar jelly with plant hormones and masses of nutrients is required. Tissue culture is more expensive and tough to do than taking cuttings.
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