Vector Definition Biology
Vector in biotechnology is very useful. Biotechnology is divided into two words- biology and technology which means we use different techniques to improve our health and environment.
How can we use vector in biotechnology
In biotechnology, for genetically manipulation of microorganisms we need a vector. Thus, vector in biotechnology is a DNA molecule which is used as a vehicle that carries foreign genetic material (foreign material is artificially prepared) into another cell for replication and expression. Vector that contains foreign DNA is called recombinant DNA.
Plasmids as vectors
Plasmid vector definition
We know, mostly DNA is found in nucleus of cell. DNA that is also found outside the nucleus of a cell which is called as extrachromosomal DNA or extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Plasmids are defined as extrachromosomal double-stranded circular DNA molecules.
It is found in various bacteria and some eukaryotes. Thus, the most commonly used host cell in recombinant DNA technology is the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria.
Plasmid as a cloning vector
Why plasmid as a cloning vector? Properties of plasmid vector that plasmid vector cloning:
1. Plasmids used as vectors because it maintain a origin of replication which is modified for replication within the host.
2. Plasmid contains antibiotic resistance gene that ensures that particular bacterial colonies has plasmids.
3. Plasmids are extra-chromosomal DNA. Thus, integrating DNA in bacterial cell by just putting into cytoplasm is easy that integrating into nucleus of cell.
4. Plasmids are self-replicating. Thus, it results in high copy number which means we get more DNA and without chromosomal contamination.
5. Plasmids size ranges between 1 and 200 kbp (kilo-base pairs) which is useful in recombinant DNA technology. The smaller the plasmid means it is more circular.
Cloning Plasmid vector
Vector in biotechnology is artificially manipulated vehicle that carries foreign DNA fragment. It can be plasmid, virus etc. Plasmids are naturally occurs in bacterial cells that are manipulated to be used in recombinant DNA technology.
Plasmid can be a cloning vector into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted for cloning purposes. It should be stably maintained in an organism, if used as cloning vector. Plasmid can be expression vector, if it is designed for gene expression in cells. Steps of how plasmid vector is inserted are as follows:
1. Desired gene is identified and removed from the organisms DNA.
3. The gene is inserted into the cut DNA. Antibiotic resistance gene is used to identify whether bacteria contains plasmid or not.
4. Bacteria that contains plasmid can be grown. Promoter is used for transcription which means to convert DNA into mRNA.
5. The inserted gene then cloned or expressed in the transgenic (genetically engineered) organism or bacteria.
USE OF VECTOR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
For cloning vector to be maintained in an organism, it must some features. Vectors must have antibiotic resistant genes by which humans and animals diseases can be treated. Antibiotic resistance genes can also be used for expression of plasmid DNA.
Vector in biotechnology may carry genes that are helpful for environment as they can in digest the pollutants.
Vector in biotechnology must produce antibacterial proteins when they are cloned in bacteria.
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- ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENE MEANING
- How can bacteria be genetically engineered to produce a human protein?
- What is involved in recombinant DNA technology?
- How do you clone a piece of DNA?
- Types of vectors in biotechnology