crossorigin="anonymous">What are chromosomes- Definition & Functions - Questions House

What are chromosomes- Definition & Functions

What are chromosomes

Chances are you have heard the term, what are chromosomes? but you may not fully understand it. A chromosome is a thread-like structure that comprises the genetic material in a cell.

What are chromosomes made of

Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins and contains genetic information of any individual. A gene is the essential physical and utilitarian unit of heredity. They are comprised of DNA behaves as guidelines to make molecules known as proteins.

What are chromatin

Chromosomes make up the set of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) and the set of sex chromosomes. Chromatin is made up of DNA letters that code for specific proteins. It means chromatin is DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes.

Pair of chromosomes in human

In humans, each cell contains 23 pair of chromosomes which means total 46 chromosomes. Out of 23 pair of chromosomes, 22 are called as autosomes and remaining 1 pair is called as sex chromosome- X and Y.

What are chromosomes definition

Briefly, chromosomes are collections of DNA letters. DNA contains thousands of genes that are present on chromosomes. Therefore, chromosomes defines the chapter of the book. Chapter of book is twice as human contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Read: DNA is like a book

Where are chromosomes found in a cell

Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins and contain the greatest amount of genetic information of any individual. In a basic language, it can be said that DNA is in gene and the genes are on chromosomes. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell.

Function of chromosomes

1.Determines gender

The functions of chromosomes in a cell are – Sex determination, maintenance of genetic material, regulatory, enhancers and adaptors. Chromosome determines gender.

2. Carries hereditary information

The role of chromosomes is for instance to carry the necessary genetic information from one generation to the other. DNA present in the chromosome either carries all the necessary genetic data or only controls the heredity. In humans, X and Y chromosomes are responsible for creating females and males respectively.

3. Regulates proteins of cell

The information provided by these chromosomes can be read and decoded by ribosome. DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) and then translated into either non-coding RNA or into a protein, which is then carried out by the ribosome. The information from DNA into mRNA is called as transcription. then mRNA to protein is known as translation.

what are chromosomes

What are chromosomes- Species chromosomes

Humans, and all other animals and plants, have only one set of chromosomes, which are called the species’ chromosomes. Every species has only a single set of chromosomes, which are also referred to as a species’ autosomes. These chromosomes tend to be identical, as they have been inherited from the ancestors of humans. In contrast, sex chromosomes, which are responsible for creating the variety of physical traits we see in men and women, are sex-specific genes. People can carry both sets of chromosomes, or even one set of autosomes, at the same time, producing mixed-chromosome babies.

XY chromosomes gender

Now, the question arises which chromosome is found only in males? Chromosome found only in males is Y-Chromosome. It is involved in sex determination in males

Throughout the human body, the cells make their own chromosomes, but it is during the creation and birth of a new life that DNA is introduced into cells. In the case of a male baby, the Y chromosome, which is passed down from mom, is combined with the X chromosome created by dad during creation, forming a new X chromosome. In the case of a female baby, the X chromosome and Y chromosome are combining, forming a new Y chromosome.

The X and Y chromosomes form the genetic blueprint of each cell in the body. As cells develop through different processes, the chromosomes inside every cell shift about. This shifting is usually programmed into the egg’s cells before conception, so that when the egg is fertilized, the cells that are carrying the X or Y chromosomes will form the sex organs like the male and female external reproductive organs, as well as the brain and heart. When these chromosomes are passed on to the next generation, the sons will have X chromosomes inside every cell of their bodies while the daughters will have Y chromosomes inside every cell. Sexually transmitted diseases can result when the Y chromosomes are inherited by the children. The sons will have X chromosomes while the daughters will have Y chromosomes, and in some cases, even an additional X chromosome.

Histones in transcription

Histones are proteins called transcriptions that bind together strands of DNA and transcription factors help control transcription. The DNA holds the information necessary to build a protein, and each protein has a specific function; for example, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins used by tissues such as muscle and skin cells. It is these proteins that are affected by environmental factors, including stress and diet, and that determine the form in which genes and proteins are expressed. Most eukaryotic chromatin contains packaging proteins known as chaperones that, in conjunction with transcription factors, bind to DNA to keep its stability and deliver it to the rest of the body for processing.

Hope what are chromosomes? topic helps you in your studies.

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