What is DNA synthesis
What is DNA synthesis called? DNA synthesis is called as DNA replication. DNA synthesis starts at a specific site in the molecule called the origin of replication. Both chains are duplicated at the same time: A thread is synthesized continuously and is known as the leader thread; the other, called the lagging strand, is synthesized discontinuously into short segments that then join and form a complete strand.
What is DNA synthesis?
According to the Arthur Kornberg study (1956), the following is concluded:
* Watson and Crick’s model of semi-conservative duplication of DNA is accepted, as demonstrated by the experiments of Meselson and Sthal.
* In the nucleus, in a region of the DNA called origin of replication the two strands are separated, and each strand is used as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand.
* The new strand is synthesized when, one by one, the new nucleotides are added and joining the nucleotides of the parental strand through the complementarity of the nitrogenous bases to form hydrogen bonds between adenine-thymine (A = T), cytosine-guanine (C = G) and vice versa.
* After a new nucleotide has been paired, the formation of the phosphodiester bond occurs with the nucleotide that preceded it, so the new chain lengthens.
* The synthesis of a new strand occurs in the opposite direction to that of the parental strand and is primarily directed by the enzymes DNA polymerases.
The genetic code is the set of rules that defines the translation of a nucleotide sequence in RNA to an amino acid sequence in a protein, in all living beings. The code establishes the relationship between sequences of three nucleotides, called codons, and amino acids. Thus, each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid.
- DNA replication and transcription similarities