What is translation?
Translation is the process of synthesis of protein. It converts language of nucleic acid to the protein language. If you have ever thought about a career in biology, one of the first steps of protein synthesis in biology might interest you. It is a well-known fact that the most significant function of all the cells in the human body is protein synthesis. A large part of this job is performing the various biochemical reactions involved in the reactions that actually produce proteins. Now lets come to What is translation and its steps?
What is translation and its steps?
All living cells need some way to put together their building blocks. DNA is the blueprint of life and each base pair is made up of a letter or string of letters that codes for a pair of amino acids. These amino acids are then put together in pairs by chemical reaction. The actual process can be long and complicated but there are three major steps. These are called the reaction steps.
It is divided into three phases: initiation, elongation and termination.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is produced from the transcription.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is known as the interpreter. It interprets mRNA genetic information into amino acid. It pairs amino acids with mRNA codons by using anticodons.
Anticodons is the triplet of bases which is complementary to mRNA codon triplet.
Ribosomes are the organelles that coordinate the synthesis of polypeptides. It is made of two subunits and each subunit is made of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Steps of translation
Three phases of translation are initiation, elongation and termination.
It is the first phase of translation. It binds mRNA with two ribosome subunits. The cap and tail of mRNA molecules helps the mRNA to bind with the ribosome.
mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit and then initiator tRNA binds to the start condon.
A larger ribosomal subunit binds to the small subunit and results in a complete functional ribosome.
It is the second phase of translation and involves three steps:
a) Recognizing codon: The incoming tRNA has an anticodon that pairs with mRNA codon which is at the A site of the ribosome. Anticodon pairs with a complementary triplet on mRNA. For instance, if mRNA has the codon UUU, the tRNA’s sequence is complementary which means AAA.
b) Peptide bond formation. The polypeptide then leaves the tRNA in the P site and attaches to the amino acid which is present on the tRNA in the A site. The ribosome catalyzes the formation of bond between two amino acids.
c) Translocation: The P site tRNA then leaves the ribosome. The tRNA that carries the polypeptide moves from the A to the P site
It is the third step that occurs when stop codon reaches the ribosomes at A site. Complete polypeptide is then freed and the ribosome again splits into its two subunits.
What is translation and its steps? The first step in the process of protein synthesis is the copying of DNA. This produces a complementary strand of RNA which undergoes translation to form proteins.
The ribosome is made up of two subunits. The small subunit attaches to the 5′ end of the mRNA and moves in a 5′-to-3′ direction.
The next step is protein synthesis. The amino acid that initiates protein synthesis is methionine. This molecule is called the initiator because it has a free amino group. After termination, the polypeptide chain has a carboxy group and is called the N terminus. The ribosome then transports the newly synthesized RNA to the next step in the process, called transfer RNA. The first step in protein synthesis is the initiation step, which is where an amino acid is placed. The second step is the elongation step. The third step is the folding of polypeptide chains into secondary and tertiary structures.
After transcription, the mRNA is translated into a polypeptide. Once translated, the mRNA will produce the protein. This process is the most crucial part of the entire process. After mRNA is synthesized, it will exit the nucleus and travel to the ribosome. Once the ribosomes are finished, the newly created mRNA is translated into a polyprotein. The mRNA then leaves the cell and reaches the ribosome to be further processed into a protein.
Theories behind translation or protein synthesis
There are many theories as to how this process actually works. Some believe that amino acids are randomly distributed in space and as a result each molecule fuses with another to create a complete protein. Many scientists disagree with this theory and think that amino acids actually interact in complex ways which lead to the formation of peptides. Another major theory about protein synthesis in biology is that it is the result of a reaction between DNA and the proteins. The DNA is the blueprint of the genetic code that dictates the construction of proteins. What is translation and its steps?
Translation starts by breakdown of glucose
There are many steps of protein synthesis in biology involving carbon dioxide. It is thought that as the amino acids are synthesized from carbon dioxide is released. One of the steps of protein synthesis in biology involves the breaking down of glucose. Glucose is one of the major fuel sources for the body and it is used as energy during the aerobic metabolism or burning of food for energy.
One of the major questions that scientists have been trying to answer is how does the proteins interact with other chemical molecules? They have explored how amino acids are combined with glucose to form peptides which then combine with fatty acids to form new proteins. This is also known as the reaction of the peptide bonds. The other major step of protein synthesis in biology involves the breaking down of glycerol into two simpler compounds, which are known as glycerol esters and glycerol. These compounds are then combined with amino acids in order to make up glucose. This is known as the transamination reaction.
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