Which of the following molecules are involved in gene expression?

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    Gene expression is defined as the process by which gene is expressed or used for production of functional protein or gene product.

    Central dogma of molecular biology explained how instructions from DNA flows into proteins, which means how the genes are expressed.

    DNA ? RNA ? protein

    Therefore, gene expression involves transcription and translation. DNA replication is not involved in gene expression because in DNA replication double-helix DNA is replicated.

    1. RNA polymerase involved in gene expression: During transcription, RNA polymerase is an enzyme that synthesises RNA from DNA.

    2. Splicing involved in gene expression: Introns are non coding sequences and exons are coding sequences. Therefore, introns must be removed and exons are joined together in splicing that increases gene expression.

    3. Primers are required in DNA replication because DNA polymerase enzyme which is used in DNA replication can synthesise DNA nucleotides by attaching to existing nucleotides strand. RNA polymerase enzyme does not need primer for transcription.

    4. Origin:Origin is defined as origin of replication from where DNA replication begins.

    5. Stop codon involved in gene expression: Stop codon is defined as codon that marks the end of translation. Stop codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA.

    6. Start codon involved in gene expression: Start codon marks the site at which translation into protein sequence begins. It is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript which is translated by a ribosome.

    7. Parental strand: In DNA replication, daughter strand which is newly formed strand is complementary to parental strand.

    8. tRNA involved in gene expression: In translation, each amino acid has its own tRNA which has unique anticodon.

    9. Okazaki fragment: Okazaki fragments are discontinuously synthesised and later joined together by DNA ligase enzyme to make lagging strand in DNA replication.

    10. Bubble: It is the replication bubble which is defined as an unwound and open region of DNA from where DNA replication.

    12. Fork: Fork is made during DNA replication which is called as replication fork.

    13. Leading strand: Leading strand is continuous strand in DNA replication.

    14. Helicase: Helicase enzyme is involved in DNA replication that unwinds DNA in initiation of replication.

    15. DNA polymerase: DNA polymerase enzyme is used in DNA replication that can synthesise DNA nucleotides by attaching to existing nucleotides strand which is primer.

    16. A site involved in gene expression: A-site is the aminoacyl site, which is defined as the first site in the ribosome. P site is peptidyl site and the E-site is the exit site and these sites are involved in translation process.

    • 24 Dec 2020 @ 01:27

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