How does the water circulate? Name and describe the process/es causing the circulation in a pot of boiling water vs. in the ocean.

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    HOW DOES WATER CIRCULATE ? A) Currents move the ocean water and circulate the water... Ocean flow is the huge scale movement of waters in the ocean basins. Winds energy surface circulate, and the cooling and sinking of waters within the polar regions power deep circulate. Surface movement includes the nice and cozy higher waters poleward from the tropics. Heat is dispensed along the way from the waters to the surroundings. At the poles, the water is in addition cooled at some stage in winter, and sinks to the deep ocean. This is especially actual within the North Atlantic and alongside Antarctica. Deep ocean water regularly returns to the floor nearly anywhere inside the ocean. Once on the floor it's far carried lower back to the tropics, and the cycle starts once more. The more efficient the cycle, the greater warmness is transferred, and the warmer the weather. Due to the rotation of the earth, currents are deflected to the right within the northern hemisphere and to the left within the southern hemisphere. This effect is called the "Coriolis force." The deflection ends in highs and lows of sea degree at once proportional to the speed of the surface currents..... PROCESS CAUSING THE CIRCULATION IN A POT OF BOILING WATER VS. IN THE OCEAN B) The water at the bottom of the pot heats up first. This causes it to make bigger. Since the warmed water has a decrease density than the water around it, it rises up through the cooler, dense water. At the pinnacle of the pot, the water cools, growing its density, which causes it to sink back down to the lowest. This up and down motion eventually heats all of the water. The chronic biking of the fluid is referred to as a convection current. Convection currents in pceans, commonly use "convection" to refer to up and down motions of air. Heat with the aid of the lowest layer of the environment from radiation or conduction is most customarily transferred by convection. Convective motions within the environment are answerable for the redistribution of warmth from the warm equatorial regions to higher latitudes and from the surface upward.

    • 26 Oct 2017 @ 04:31


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Summarize basic mechanisms of gene regulation in eukaryotes.

Gene regulation is the process to control the gene expression in DNA as different cells in a eukaryotic organism may express different sets of genes, even they have the same DNA. It involves many steps such as: 1) The structure of chromatin regulated as open or “relaxed” chromatin will make a gene for transcription. 2) Transcription is conversion of DNA into RNA and tanscription factor proteins bind to specific DNA sequences for its transcription into RNA. 3) Post transcriptional modification includes : A) Capping at the 5'- end. B) Tailing at the 3'- end. C) mRNA splicing. Capping at the 5'- End : 7- methyl guanosine is added at the 5’ end of almost all eukaryotic RNAs by a 5’-5’ triphosphate linkage. The capping process occurs in nuclei, prior to the splicing. The 5’cap protects the RNA from ribonucleases. The cap structure of mRNA will be recognized by the cap-binding protein required for translation. The cap binds to cap binding complex of proteins which promotes binding of the mRNA to the ribosome to initiate the process of translation. Poly-A Tail at 3' -END : Eukaryotic RNAs posses a string of 80 to 250 A residues at the 3’ end. This poly-A tail protects mRNA from enzymatic destruction, also acts as binding site for many proteins. There is no poly-T sequence on the DNA template from which the RNA is transcribed. The tailing process dose not depend on the template. The tailing process occurs in the nuclei, prior to the splicing and takes place in multiple steps with the help of the enzyme polyadenylate polymerase. The enzyme uses the cleaved mRNA as a primer and does not require any template. mRNA Splicing : mRNA splicing is the process where non-coding introns are removed from RNA transcripts and coding exon is translated into amino acids. Splicing in eukaryotic cells need a wider range of protein products. In eukaryotes, the gene contains introns that do not code for protein. So transcription of DNA produces pre-mRNA, which must be spliced into mRNA, before translation begins. One common pathway is through spliceosome. mRNA splicing requires a large RNA and protein complex called the spliceosome. The small RNA molecules in the spliceosome interact directly with the mRNA and act as catalysts. Most of the splices carried out by the spliceosome have the same bases at the edges of the splice site. For instance , the 5' site will contain the sequence GU, and the 3' site will contain AG. Self-splicing mRNA is mRNA that does not require spliceosome to carry out the biochemical steps necessary to remove the intron from the mRNA. Alternative splicing is a process of mRNA processing events in which some exons are removed or joined in various combinations, resulting in multiple protein isoforms being encoded by a single gene. 4) In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in the cell nucleus, and the mRNA will be exported to the cytosol and meets up with the translation machinery. Eukaryotic mRNAs are also degraded following translation. Their half-lives are longer than those of prokaryotic mRNAs and their half-lives can vary tremendously from one eukaryotic mRNA to the next. Different eukaryotic mRNAs have different half-lives. 5) Translation of an mRNA can be increased or inhibited by regulators, such as miRNAs can block translation of their target mRNAs